bunpeiris Cambridge Literature

Tuition Cambridge IGCSE Literature at Kandana

bunpeiris Cambridge IGCSE Literature

Tuition Cambridge IGCSE Literature at Kandana

Private Tuition in ENGLISH Literature, Language Cambridge IGCSE, OL, Edexcel & National OL Targeting “A” Grade, at Kandana Saturdays and Sundays small groups by an Int’l School Master. Printed tutorials of absolutely high quality content and past papers. Classes are supported with an outstanding library of high quality, hard bound[hbk] study course books, literature course books, classics, language reference, fiction, biography, history etc.
bunpeiris@gmail.com Call 0777100060

William Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet

William Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet
Shakespeare is for all cosmos, for all times: above image is of 2013 Hollywood movie adaptation of Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet starring Douglas Booth & Hailee Steinfeld; below [Home Page Slide Show] images are of 2013 Bollywood movie adaptation titled Ramleela starring Ranveer Singh and Deepika Padukone.

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Shakespeare was and wasn't

Shakespeare was and wasn't

Following gleaning is off  the website of Virginia Commonwealth University

VCU MENORAH REVIEW Winter/Spring 2009Number 70
For the Enrichment of Jewish Thought

The Ancient Grudge: The Merchant of Venice and Shylock’s Christian Problem

Sunday, December 14, 2014

B.A. in English from University of London

B.A. in English from University of London
B. A. in English from University of London External Programmes 
Are you a voracious reader of works of literature? 
Do you have a "Sense of English Language" coupled with a "Bent on Literarture"?
Would you love to become a teacher of literature?
Would you love to engage your learners in discussions instead of one man show lectures and make your small group classes roaring with laughter?
Would you love to  teach literature by engaging the learners to connect the work of literature at hand with real life situation, other works of literature, history and religion thereby inspiring and enlightening them all?
Then why don't you study B. A. in English at Univeristy of London?
But there is no course provider in Sri Lanka.
You may directly, no intermediary at all,  make payment to University of London, London, UK by Credit card/Wire transfer/Bank draft and study on-line with substantial group tutor assistance, VLE- Virtual Learning Environment (online forum for discussions) and most of all, on your own. You will be lonely. But then who knows, we can set up a club.
Your exams will be held strictly at British Council, Colombo in May and you may go step by step: Certificate, then Diploma then onto the B.A in English.
In terms of syllabus there is no difference between in-house University of London B. A. in English & University of London External. You get a fully fledged, top of the flight B. A. Degree in English from a top ranking university in England. Univeristy of London isn't any other university. It is University of London.
Since the prescribed books aren't available in Sri Lanka you may have to import them from UK or USA. Or else perhaps, I, bunpeiris could be of help.
I have them all. And in addition to the prescribed books, there is an outstanding library that would rarely be seen in a residence:  study course books, literature course books, classics, language reference, fiction, biography, history etc. We can set up a club. bunpeiris@gmail.com

Following information is gleaned from http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/

Structure and syllabus

Bachelor of Arts degree in English
The BA in English consists of twelve courses. Choose four courses from level 4, four from level 5 and four from level 6.
Diploma of Higher Education in English
The Dip HE in English consists of eight courses. Choose four courses from level 4 and four from level 5.
Certificate of Higher Education in English
The Cert HE in English consists of four courses from level 4.

Level 4

Two core courses (BA, DipHE & CertHE)
Explorations in Literature
Approaches to Text

Level 4 (BA, DipHE & CertHE)

Plus two courses chosen from
Renaissance Comedy: Shakespeare and Jonson
Introduction to Creative Writing
Introduction to English Language

Level 5

Two courses chosen from
Literature of the Later Middle Ages
Renaissance and Restoration
Augustans and Romantics

Level 5

Plus two courses chosen from
Varieties of English

Level 6 (BA only)

Four courses chosen from
American Literature
Drama since 1860
Language and Gender
Language and the Media
The Novel
Postcolonial Literatures in English

Sunday, August 31, 2014

Shakespeare in a nutshell

Shakespeare in a nutshell by bunpeiris

Was Shakespeare [1564- 1616] fortunate to have lived in the golden age [Queen Elizabeth’s reign: 1558–1603] of English history, or was it the golden age that was fortunate to have him?

The worst of times, the best of works
It has been argued the best of the literary works comes into life in the worst of times: the living testimony towards such a persuasion comes in the form of no less than the glorious literature of Russia. The best of the literary works of Russia [Crime & Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky in 1866; War and peace by Tolstoy in 1869] had all sprung up during the worst of its times [czarist autocracies: reign of Alexander 111 1845-1894; reign of Nicholas 11 1894-1917].
Had Shakespeare lived in the worst of times, would he have even surpassed his unparalleled achievements as those stand today? Would he have infused still greater depth of suffering in the heart of King Lear at the death of his beloved daughter, Cordelia?
No, no, no life!
Why should a dog, a horse, a rat, have life,
And thou no breath at all?
King Lear (5.3.13)
"Has the world known a greater sorrow than a death of a child while the father is still alive?"
A hush has descebded on the Globe Theatre. Th packed audience of three thousand-lords, ladies, gentlemen, merchants, tradesmen, sailors, lawyers, servants, apprentices, schoolboys, prostitutes, brothel keepers, many of whom have paid only one penny to stand as “groundlings” in front of the stage-are watching a brand –new play in broad spring daylight.. Richard burbage enters as the old King Lear. In his arms in his daughter, Cordelia, played by a boy actor. Burbage fills the rapt silence with sounds of torment even more painful than his cries of madness on the heath an hour or so earlier. His beloved Cordlia is “dead as earth”. Nothing as unremittingly bleak has ever been seen on the English stage. Departing radically from previous telling of the story. Willaim Shakespeare, the play’s 42 year old author, has been brave to let Cordelia die. By doing so he has raised stark questions about the nature of existence, questions raised afreash each time King Lear is performed. Arguably the greatest of Shakespeare’s plays, King Lear is also one of humanity’s finest artistic achievements.    
Stanley Wells: Shakespeare off the record

Best of works, best of times
James S. Shapiro [born 1955], the Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University who specializes in Shakespeare and the Early Modern period, contends that Shakespeare was born in the right place and time: “his genius flourished in the richly collaborative world of the Elizabethan theater, and his dyer’s hand was steeped in the social and spiritual contradictions of an age poised between the medieval and the modern.”
Following the ascension of Elizabeth [1533-1603] to the throne, significant concessions were extended to the Catholics in appeasement; following the defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588, England established herself as the leading maritime & commercial power of the world.
Furthermore, importance of the arts to the life and legacy of her nation was recognized by Queen Elizabeth [reign: 1558-1603]. The Queen being fond of the theater, extended Royal patronage to establish professional theaters attracting 15,000 theatergoers per week in London, a city of 150,000 to 250,000. Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus, Edmund Spenser’s Faerie Queen, and Sir Philip Sidney’s Defence of Poesie were all written during this golden age. And Shakespeare was the favourite dramatist of the queen.
Then again, following the death of Queen Elizabeth, King James [reign: 1603-1635] heartened the hearts & buoyed up the lives of the dramatists. The king’s men were frequently  summoned to playact at Whitehall, at Greenwhich, or at Richmond. Shakespeare, who was beieved to had never travelled overseas, probably lend his ears to  Sir Fracnis Drake [1540 –1596], who circumnavigated [1577 -1580] only for the second time in mankind, was the second-in-command of the English fleet that blasted off the mighty Spanish Armada in 1588 and to Sir Walter Raleigh [1554 –1618], the  English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy, and explorer.
A king with a king-size heart for learning, James elevated Shakespeare’s theater company, Lord Chamberlain’s Men to the status of the King’s Men. Will was the enlightening light; Will  was the all consuming fire; Will  was the soul enhancing music; Will  was the life giving water. He said it all: all about humanity, human heart being his workshop. Since then he has been all those & more.

To draw no envy, Shakespeare, on thy name,
Am I thus ample to thy book and fame;
While I confess thy writings to be such
As neither man nor muse can praise too much;

To the Memory of My Beloved the Author, Mr. William Shakespeare by Ben Jonson [1572- 1637].

The literary humanist
To his friend and rival dramatist Ben Jonson, Shakespeare was the Sweet Swan of Avon and not of an age, but for all time, man for all ages. Since Ben Jonson, a stream of literary lumineries have articulated his concise words in longer versions: here goes Joeph Fiennes [born 1970].
When I was preparing to play him in the film Shakespeare in Love, my starting point was that he was an incredible observer of the people around him, soaking up their characteristic like blotting paper. The key is that Will Shakespeare was Everyman; politically his views ranged across the board: in religious matters he was non-committal; sexually he was able to inhabit all points of view. He could deal with everyone from street urchins to monarchs, and he had the same problems as his characters. Being aware of his own doubts & contradictions made him intensly human. 
 Shakespeare is for all ages, all cosmos
Joseph Fiennes goes on
Despite  the huge thrust of technological advance since the Elizabethen era, the human condition Shakepeare wrote about remains timeless. We still fall in love &get angry and avaricious; we are materiliastic or fanatical or seek spoirtually. Here was a man who understood all the pain of being human, yet loved life & humour& fun. Put simply, he was one of the greatest-ever literary humanists.
Language for self-expression for every human emotion
Stanley Wells: Shakespeare off the record
Over the past four centuries, Shakespeare’s iconic status as a poet & dramatist has come to represent what it means to be a genius, and his words have provided a language of self expression for every human emotion. Shakepeare is cited as an athourity in moral, political and cultural contexts that even he could have never dreamed of. His very name can stimulate approval, challenge, argument, lunacy, brilliance and, occassinlay, especially among schoolchildren, boredom. Shakespeare’s legacy represents more than the story of a life & its age; it has dominated artistic & cultural endeavour in every generation that has followed him.
The Invention of the Human
Furthermore, the leading light of Shakepearan works, Harold Bloom [born 1930] 1930 would go further: Shakespeare "essentially invented human personality as we continue to know and value it."
"Before Hamlet taught us not to have faith either in language or in ourselves, being human was much simpler for us but also rather less interesting," Bloom writes. "Shakespeare, through Hamlet, has made us skeptics in our relationships with anyone, because we have learned to doubt articulateness in the realm of affection."

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Anthony Burgess

Anthony Burgess

Following article is republished herein by the kind courtesy of International Anthony Burgess Foundation. 
Anthony Burgess was a late starter in the art of fiction. He spent many years as a school teacher in England and Malaya before his first novel, Time for a Tiger, was published in 1956, by which time he was 39 years old. He had previously completed the drafts of two other novels, A Vision of Battlements and The Worm and the Ring, which had been rejected for publication in the early 1950s.
After the critical success of his first three novels (which were later published together as The Malayan Trilogy), Burgess returned to England in 1959 with the aim of documenting the ways in which British society had changed while he had been living in Malaya and Brunei. His novelThe Right to an Answer considers the England of the late 1950s and early 1960s from the perspective of Mr Raj, an overseas student who is visiting Britain while researching a thesis. In The Doctor Is Sick, Burgess explores the underworld of London, with particular reference to Cockney rhyming slang and the secret language of criminals. Other novels from this period include One Hand Clapping, a mediatation on the condition of England, and Inside Mr Enderby, in which Burgess (writing as Joseph Kell) introduces the poet Francis Xavier Enderby, who also appears in three later novels. His short novel The Eve of Saint Venus, illustrated by the Australian artist Edward Pagram, considers the manners and morals of the English upper classes. Nothing Like the Sun: A Story of Shakespeare’s Love Life is the first of Burgess’s encounters with England’s national poet and playwright. It was followed by a Shakespeare film script and an illustrated biography.
Two futuristic dystopias were composed in the early 1960s: A Clockwork Orange (later filmed by Andy Warhol and Stanley Kubrick) and The Wanting Seed. Burgess returned to speculative fiction in 1978, when he published 1985, a combination of novel and critical text, which offers an alternative prophecy to George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four.
From the mid-1960s Burgess’s novels became increasingly outward-looking in their focus. Honey for the Bears, which draws extensively on Burgess’s knowledge of Russian language and culture, is set in Leningrad, which Burgess and his first wife had visited in the summer of 1961.Tremor of Intent (1966), a parody of Ian Fleming’s espionage thrillers, takes place on a gastronomic cruise ship sailing into Soviet Eastern Europe. Burgess made two trips to Tangier to visit his friend William Burroughs, and he drew on his knowledge of the city when he came to write Enderby Outside.
Burgess left England permanently in 1968, and his ambition to become known as a EuropeanNapoleon Symphony novelist blossomed after this date. M/F, based on a non-fiction text by the structuralist anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, is an updating of the Oedipus myth. In Napoleon Symphony, perhaps his most challenging novel in formal terms, Burgess uses musical prose in order to retell the Napoleon story. The novel takes its four-movement structure from Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony, and each episode within the novel corresponds to a passage of music in Beethoven’s score. There is a similar experiment within Mozart and the Wolf Gang, which features a narrative written in the style of Jane Austen and the Marquis de Sade, based on a Mozart symphony. The deliberate fusion of words and music became more prominent in Burgess’s writing after the performance of his Symphony in C by the University of Iowa Orchestra in 1975. In Beard’s Roman Women, for example, Burgess makes frequent references to the Song for Saint Cecilia’s Day by John Dryden. Burgess went on to compose his own musical setting of Dryden’s text in 1978.
The Clockwork Testament is a kind of sequel to A Clockwork Orange, in which Burgess reflects bitterly on the evils of Hollywood and the perils of film adaptation. The text includes a long poem about Saint Augustine and the heretic Pelagius, as well as the screenplay of a trashy film based on The Wreck of the Deutschland by Gerard Manley Hopkins.
Burgess’s most substantial novel, Earthly Powers, was published to international acclaim in 1980. The novel is a family saga which chronicles the disasters of the twentieth century, narrated by a homosexual novelist whose sister is married to the Pope’s brother. The uneasy friendship between the writer and the cleric takes place across four continents, against an ever-changing backdrop of wars, civil unrest and religious horrors. The critic George Steiner wrote in the New Yorker: ‘The whole landscape is the brighter for Earthly Powers, a feat of imaginative breadth and intelligence which lifts fiction high.’ Earthly Powers was awarded the Charles Baudelaire Prize and the Prix du Meilleur Livre Etranger in France in 1981.
The End of the World News brings together three narratives about world-changing events: the career of Sigmund Freud and the invention of psychoanalysis; the life of Leon Trotsky, presented in the form of a Broadway musical; and the destruction of the earth by a rogue asteroid.  Burgess had seen a photograph of President Jimmy Carter watching three television sets simultaneously, and the novel is intended to mimic the act of watching three different television channels in this way.
Other novels of the 1970s and 1980s include Abba Abba, which concerns an imaginary meeting in Rome between the dying John Keats and the blasphemous Roman sonneteer Belli; Moses: A Narrative, an epic poem based on the Book of Exodus; Man of Nazareth, adapted from Burgess’s television scripts for Jesus of Nazareth; and Any Old Iron, in which the sword Excalibur is rediscovered by Welsh nationalists in the middle years of the twentieth century.
In the early 1990s Burgess announced his intention to publish a long novel written inottava rima, the verse form used by Lord Byron in his narrative poem, Don Juan. This eventually emerged as Byrne, Burgess’s last novel, published posthumously in 1995. His final novel in prose was A Dead Man in Deptford, an account of the assassination of Christopher Marlowe written in mock-Elizabethan English, published in 1993 to commemorate the four-hundredth anniversary of Marlowe’s death.
Anthony Burgess's "A Clockwork Orange" was one of the resources for Cambridge AS/A Level learning in the year 2012.


Monday, August 25, 2014


by bunpeiris

No single modern literary work has ever revealed to the West the beauty of Indian culture as Gitanjali has done. Gitanjali is a work of literature like none other: it is timeless and priceless. All the poems under the stars are fickle drops of glistening dew on the cusps of petals of flowers in the still wilderness, that would be swept away by the flimsiest of breeze; Gitanjali is the resplendent full moon that would stay still all throughout the loveliest of starry nights. In less than a year’s time since the English translation of Gitanjali, in 1913, Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was awarded the Noble Prize for literature. In spite of the Nobel Prize, Tagore was the poet’s poet as Leo Tolstoy was the novelist’s novelist. Irrespective of Noble Prize, Gitanjali is the noblest poem ever: it is a supreme work of literature, whose divinity and humanity wouldn’t be measured by a worldly reward, least of all, by the Noble Prize, of which, political neutrality has been eroded in the past couple of decades, especially in terms of the Noble Prize for Peace. Even on the matter of Prize for Literature, the fact that Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Hardy, Indian Master R. K. Narayan (1906- 2001), Narayan’s discoverer Graham Greene (1904-1991), English novelist Edward Morgan Forster (1879-1970) and English novelist William Somerset Maugham (1874-1965) were deprived of due recognition, has dimmed the halo of the Nobel Prize. But then none of the winners was of the caliber of Tolstoy; Novelist Tolstoy was Tolstoy. He was of his own class as the poet Rabindranath Tagore was. Hence the Indians and lovers of R. K. Narayan needn’t be overly sulky: the ultimate honor for a novelist, is to be in the company of Tolstoy.

Rabindranath Tagor, the humanist
Nevertheless, the Noble Prize brought in great publicity upon Gurudev Rabindranath Tagor: it was the first time a non-western writer was so honored. Overnight, the peerless poet, the supreme humanist philosopher of modern era became the leading light of the world espousing the cause of a multi-cultural world in the world stage.

Rabindranath Tagore, India’s most cherished Renaissance figure
In India, on a spiritual plane, Tagore was the modern-day sage; on the temporal level, he was an educationist who embodied the best of traditional Hindu education with Western ideals.

The discovery of Rabindranath Tagore by Rothenstein & W. B. Yeats
Rabindranath Tagore was a Bengali poet who wrote stories, plays and songs in his mother tongue, Bengali. He wasn’t much known in India, not to mention overseas. In 1912, though sans great expectations, Tagore translated his latest poems, Gitanjali from Bengali to English on a small notebook during a sea voyage with his son to England. In London Tagore’s briefcase containing the note book, among other things was left behind in the London subway. By providence, the brief case was recovered in the following day. British artist Sir William Rothenstein (1872-1945), a friend of the family of Tagore in Calcutta (1911), having heard of translation, persuaded a reluctant Tagore, to reveal the translation. Having taken by surprise, on July 7, 1912, William Rothenstein had his friend William Butler Yeats read the poem in his rented house in Hampstead. Irishman W. B. Yeats, the foremost poet of his era in England, found himself enthralled in the poem. On November 1, 1912, the India Society in London published a limited edition (750 copies, of which 500 were for the members and 250 for the general sale) of Gitanjali: Song of Offerings containing English translation of 103 poems, with an introduction by Yeats and a pencil-sketch of Tagore by Rothenstein.

Rabindranath Tagore dedicated the publication of English translation of Gitanjali to William Rothenstein. William Butler Yeats went on to win Nobel Prize for Literature a decade later, in the year 1923.

Rabindranath Tagore Renounces Knighthood

Tagore, knighted by King George V in 1919, renounced his Knighthood following the massacre of over 400 unarmed civilians at the public garden of Jallianwala Bagh, Amirtsar in the Punjab state of India by the British colonialists in India. In spite of good rapport with Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948),the leading light of Indian nationalism, in spite of renouncing British atrocities in India, Tagore wasn’t deeply involved in politics. He wasn’t a political activist as Gandhi was. His main activities were confined to delivering lectures around the world and expansion of his university that he sustained with his own funds that he collected by from his never ending writing, composing and lecturing.

Rabindranath Tagore upbraids Mahatma Gandhi

Tagore was a sage.Tagore was the maker not only of modern Indian literature but also the modern Indian mind. He would refuse to fall before god begging for salvation. He upbraided Mahatma Gandhi for declaring that a massive 15 January 1934 earthquake in Bihar, India leaving thousands dead, was divine retribution brought on by the oppression of Dalits of India. Tagor was a humanist who wouldn’t accept that divinity, if that existed, would be bent upon, punishing the humanity.

Rabindranath Tagore and Buddhism
Though born to a prominent Brahmin family in Bengal, Tagore was never a staunch proponent of Hinduism. In fact, at his own Visva-Bharati a public central university located at Santiniketan, West Bengal, Tagore had Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism, and Pali language in its streams of learning.

Rabindranath Tagore on his religious beliefs
I have been asked to let you know something about my own view of religion. One of the reasons why I always feel reluctant to speak about this is that I have not come to my own religion through the portals of passive acceptance of a particular creed owing to some accident of birth. I was born to a family the members of which were pioneers in the revival in our country of a great religion, based upon the utterances of Indian sages in the Upanishads. But, owing to my idiosyncrasy of temperament, it was impossible for me to accept any religious teaching on the only ground that people in my surroundings believed it to be true. I could not persuade myself to imagine that I had a religion simply because everybody whom I might trust believed in its value.
Tagore in China: Talks in China (1925)

Rabindranath Tagore reveals his version of God in Gitanjali

Above song is the Sinhalese rendition of Poem No.11 of Gitanjali given below.
Leave this chanting and singing and telling of beads!
Whom dost thou worship in this lonely dark corner of a temple with doors all shut?
Open thine eyes and see thy God is not before thee!
He is there where the tiller is tilling the hard ground and where the path maker is breaking stones.
He is with them in sun and in shower, and his garment is covered with dust. Put of thy holy mantle and even like him come down on the dusty soil!
Where is this deliverance to be found?
Our master himself has joyfully taken upon him the bonds of creation; he is bound with us all forever.
Come out of thy meditations and leave aside thy flowers and incense!
What harm is there if thy clothes become tattered and stained?
Meet him and stand by him in toil and in sweat of thy brow

Rabindrnath Tagore: True words and an unbroken World
Rabindrnath Tagore was a champion of the notion of “One World” that makes his name live forever. The following poem from Gitanjali [Song offerings] brings together the ideals Tagore presented to India and to the entire humankind.
Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high; Where knowledge is free;
Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls;
Where words come out from the depth of truth;
Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection;
Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit;
Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever-widening thought and action.
Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.
John Lennon echoes Rabindranath Tagor: Imagine
In the year 1971, co-founder of Rock Music Band Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr) (1960-1970), John Lennon (1940-1980), whose solo album sales as at 2012 exceeded 14 million units, was to echo Rabindranath Tagor’s dream of unbroken world; a world at peace, without the divisiveness and barriers of religions and nationalities.
Here is the Anthem of Peace.

Incidentally, as Tagore renounced his knighthood over Amritsar Massacre (1919), John Lennon, half a century later, in 1969, returned his MBE to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth 11 over Mai Lai Massacre (1968) in Vietnam. Following the murder of John Lennon by the gunman Mark David Chapman, Lennon’s wife Yoko Ono issued a statement saying "There is no funeral for John", ending it with the words, “John loved and prayed for the human race. Please pray the same for him.”

Imagine there's no heaven It's easy if you try
No hell below us Above us only sky
Imagine all the people Living for today...
Imagine there's no countries It isn't hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for And no religion too
Imagine all the people Living life in peace...
You may say I'm a dreamer But I'm not the only one
I hope someday you'll join us And the world will be as one
Imagine no possessions I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people Sharing all the world...
You may say I'm a dreamer But I'm not the only one
I hope someday you'll join us And the world will live as one
"Desmond Morris informs me that John Lennon's magnificent song is sometimes performed in America with the phrase 'and no religion too' expurgated. One version even has the effrontery to change it to 'and one religion too." Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion
Quote Adam Buxton "Perhaps controversial, but this bit in The Killing Fields with Imagine makes my list. I remember when we went to see The Killing Fields when I was little, and everybody came out of the theatre and said, “That bit with Imagine? Really? For Christ’s sake, that was so cheesy! Such a low blow.” But the implication seemed to be that they felt violated because it had worked. They all cried because it’s a very moving moment. Schanberg and Dith Pran are reunited, and suddenly this anthem for peace comes on, and it’s very hard not to be moved by it. Then you feel manipulated, and you feel that that’s unfair. But that’s good, that’s not exactly manipulation... maybe it is, it’s just big style manipulation. It just seemed too obvious for many people, I guess. It’s like durr, Imagine, it’s a big movie song. I don’t cry every time I hear Imagine, but I do want to cry when I see it in that film at that moment." Adam Buxton

The Killing Fields are a series of mass graves of Cambodians subjected to genocide by the Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979, immediately after the end of the Cambodian Civil War (1970-1975).
DC-Cam Mapping Program and Yale University indicate at least 1,386,734 victims buried in 20,000 mass graves. Estimates of the total number of deaths resulting from Khmer Rouge policies, including disease and starvation, range from 1.7 to 2.5 million out of a population of around 8 million. In 1979, communist Vietnam invaded Democratic Kampuchea and toppled the Khmer Rouge regime. It was a spillover of Vietnam war (1955-1975) in which Americans bombed Indo China for for two decades day after day: 6,727,048 tons of bombs, more than twice the quantity of bombs dropped by Allies in the European theater and Pacific theater  in the Second World War.
Cambodian journalist Dith Pran coined the term "killing fields" after his escape from the regime. A 1984 film, The Killing Fields, narrates the story of Dith Pran, played by another Cambodian survivor Haing S. Ngor, and his journey to escape the death camps.

Rabindranath Tagore’s Gitanjali in Sinhala
Rabindranath Tagore’s Gitanjali was thrice translated into Sinhala, the language of Sinhalese of Sri Lanka by three Sinhalese writers: Prof. Vinnie Vitharana, Kusum Dissnayake (wife of Dr. J. B. Dissanayake) and Edmund Jayasuriya. Edward Jayasuriya’s translation carries an introductory text by illustrious Sri Chandraratne Manawasinghe (1913-1964) of the village of Puwakdandawa in Ruhunu Giruwapattuwa off Sri Lanka Holidays Tangalle.

Rabindranath Tagore and Sri Lanka
Quote Lakshman Kadirgamar Institute for International Relations and Strategic Studies, Colombo, Sri Lanka 12th June 2012.
Tagore’s fascination with Sri Lanka can be attributed to two factors, Dr Sandagomi Coperhewa said: his awareness of the Sinhalese people and culture having descended from immigrants from Bengal region in ancient times and due to his profound respect for Theravada Buddhism and the Buddhist heritage of the island. One recalls Tagore’s song about the Buddha, “Please be born again….” (two lines loosely translated being: “The world today is wild with the delirium of hatred, All creatures are crying for a new birth of thine”). Tagore was also aware of Angarika Dharmapala’s (1864-1993) pioneering Buddhist revival work in India, and the Maha Bodhi Journal (1892) started by Angarika Dharmapala was patronized by Indian intellectuals such as Tagore who contributed articles and poems to it, and needless to say, Angarika Dharmapala had great respect for Tagore. While in India, Sri Lankan art critic and historian Ananda Commaraswamy (1874-1947) also formed close relationships with the Tagore family and was involved in both the literary renaissance and the Swadeshi movement-an early phase of the struggle for Indian independence.

Tagor’s first visit to Sri Lanka was said to be when he was a student at the University Of London, England. Tagore's subsequent visit to Sri Lanka in 1922, 1928 & 1934 have been well recorded. Tagore’s visit to Sri Lanka in 1922 and 1928 were mainly owing to Buddhist Heritage of Sri Lanka. It is also recorded that Tagore availed the opportunities to introduce his concept Visva-Baharat, a school of art and literature. Tagore’s visit to Sri Lanka weren’t confined to intellectual circles in Colombo: he visited some of the key cultural attractions of Sri Lanka Holidays: Kandy, Anuradhapura, Galle and Matara. During his visit in 1928, Tagore, in spite of his poor health, took part in Vesek festival in Sri Lanka Holidays Anuradhapura

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